Course Syllabus
Course Name Translation Grammar: Written Expression  (Course No:51029)
Category Language Competence
Year Taken First or Second Year
Offered Major
/Type of Credit
All Majors / Required
Number of Credits 2
Number of Classes 16
Professor Ken Inoue
Email : ken.i@babel.edu  
Instructor Hisao Nishimiya
Email : hisao.n@babel.edu
Course Description Learn translational expression rules.
Course Policy Attendance : Enter the course with password.
Netiquette : Refer to the Netiquette Policy in the Student Handbook.
Student with special needs : Refer to the Students with Disabilities and Accommodation Policy in the Student Handbook.
Academic Honesty : Refer to the Student integrity and Academic Honesty Policy in the Student Handbook.
Honor Code : Refer to the Honor Code Policy in the Student Handbook.
Course Objective (Goal) Obtain an accurate understanding of source language, suitable translation into target language, and adoption of appropriate sentence style among different expressions by genre. Accomplished through learning expression rules of translation grammar.
Learning Outcome Translate proficiently English texts into Japanese using appropriate sentence style by genre and Babel Translation Grammar expression rules. By learning, understanding and becoming familiar with these rules - developed by a linguistics professor in cooperation with Babel in the1990s - translators will greatly improve their translation efficiency. Babel Translation Grammar expression rules focus on syntax differences in English and Japanese sentences.
Course Progression Read expression rules and translate practice questions.
Listen to audio lectures.
Self-grade test using detailed explanation and translation examples.
Submit assignment.
Course Text Expression Rules, Practice Questions, Explanation/ Translated Sample Answers (Posted in each lecture room. Print out when needed)
*Authored originally by the Professor for Babel University Professional School of Translation.
* Revised in November 2012
Course Outline
No Course Title Description
Lecture 1 1. Learning Linguistic Features of Japanese key points to pay attention to when translating
Lecture 2 2. Eliminating Unnecessary Subjects/ Personal Pronouns (1) first person
(2) third person
Lecture 3 3. Understanding Narrative Parts of Stories and Point of Views (1) first person
(2) third person
Lecture 4 4. Understanding and Translating Tense (1) past tense
(2) perfect tense
(3) progressive form
Lecture 5 5. Translating Action (1) present participle
(2) conjunction/ relative pronoun
(3) onomatopoeia
Lecture 6 6. Choosing Speech (1) direct/ indirect speech
(2) represented speech
Lecture 7 7. Choosing Nouns in Translation (1) common nouns & connotations
(2) abstract nouns & words derived from Chinese
(3) describing proper nouns
Lecture 8 8. Distance between Subjects and Predicates (1) from S+V+O construction to S+O+V construction
(2) bringing subjects and predicates closer
Lecture 9 9. Adapting Demonstrative Pronouns (1) omitting demonstrative pronouns
(2) positioning of demonstrative pronouns
Lecture 10 10. Rules of Word Order and Modifications (1) basic principles in modification
(2) relative constructions
Lecture 11 11. Emphasizing Word Expressions (1) formal/ informal words
(2) old/ new words
(3) dialects and pidgins
Lecture 12 12. Written Topic Genre and Writing Style (1) genre and reader’s expectations
(2) writing style for fiction
(3) writing style for non-fiction
Lecture 13 13. Adding Rhythm to End of Sentences translating the original rhythm into Japanese
Lecture 14 14. Translation Techniques in Improving Conversational Text (1) age
(2) gender difference
(3) continuity and tempo of a conversation
Lecture 15 15. Modifying Sentences (1) dividing and combining sentences
(2) simplifying sentences
(3) summarizing in a descriptive from
Lecture 16 16. Revising and Editing: Organizing the Japanese (1) punctuation marks as breath breaks
(2) efficient use of Kanji
(3) conjunctions as direction indicators
Grade Evaluation and Course Requirement 1. Assignments (All assignments must be submitted)
2. Final Exam (Minimum Course Requirement: B or above)
Grade Score
A 85 - 100
B 70 - 84
C 60 - 69
D 50 - 59
F 49 and under
Submission papers will be returned with the evaluation sheet, which states evaluation marking and comments as well as corrections with rubrics.
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Revised in July 2018